Society of University Surgeons| Volume 74, ISSUE 2, P181-189, August 1973

Download started.


Long-term functional success following freezing of canine kidneys

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Based upon long-term functional success of kidneys frozen solid with liquid nitrogen, capable of sustaining the dog's life after contralateral nephrectomy, the following factors appear important: (1) surgical technique, (2) perfusion, (3) cryoprotectant, (4) freeze, and (5) thaw parameters. Application of simple freeze-thaw parameters important to successful cell suspension or thin tissue slice cryopreservation has failed when applied to the kidney. This study focuses attention upon each factor, detailing its contribution to successful freeze-thaw of the canine kidney to −22 ° C. Ultimate success of a renal organ bank rests upon retrieval of a viable organ from -196 ° C. storage.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Beisang A.A.
        • Graham E.F.
        • Lillehei R.C.
        • Dietzman R.H.
        • Carter J.E.
        Enzyme levels in the effluent perfusates from frozen canine kidneys.
        Transplant. Proc. 1969; 1: 862
        • Cohn Z.A.
        • Benson B.
        The “in vitro” differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. III. The reversibility of granule on hydrolytic enzyme formation and the turnover of granule constituents.
        Exp. Med. 1965; 122: 455
        • Dietzman R.H.
        • Lillehei R.C.
        Circulatory collapse and shock.
        in: Schwartz S.I. Principles of surgery. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, New York1969: 119-135
        • Halasz N.A.
        • Rosenfield H.A.
        • Orloff M.J.
        • Seifer L.N.
        Whole organ preservation. II. Freezing studies.
        Surgery. 1967; 61: 417
        • Karow Jr., A.M.
        • Lui W.P.
        • Humphries Jr., H.L.
        Survival of dog kidneys subjected to high pressure: Necrosis of kidneys after freezing.
        Cryobiology. 1970; 7: 122
        • Ketterer F.D.
        • Holst H.I.
        • Lehr H.B.
        Progress in microwave thawing of canine kidneys.
        Cryobiology. 1970; 6: 590
        • Luyet B.J.
        Physical changes occurring in frozen solutions during rewarming and melting.
        in: Walstenholme G.E. O'Connor M. The frozen cell. J. & A. Churchill, Ltd, London1970: 27
        • Meryman H.T.
        Cryoprotective agents.
        Cryobiology. 1971; 8: 173
        • Mundth E.C.
        • DeFalco A.J.
        • Jacobson Y.G.
        Functional survival of kidneys subjected to extracorporeal freezing and implantation.
        Cryobiology. 1965; 2: 62
        • Needleman P.
        • Possoneau J.V.
        • Lowry O.H.
        Distribution of glucose and related metabolites in rat kidney.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1968; 215: 655
        • Rapatz G.T.
        • Sullivan J.J.
        • Luyet B.
        Preservation of erythrocytes in blood containing various cryoprotective agents, frozen at various rates and brought to a given final temperature.
        Cryobiology. 1968; 5: 18
      1. Rebelo, A. E., Graham, E. F., Crabo, B. G., Lillehei, R. C., and Dietzman, R. H.: Cryoprotectants in successful renal cryopreservation. Submitted for publication.

      2. Rebelo, A. E., Graham, E. F., Crabo, B. G., Lillehei, R. C., and Dietzman, R. H.: Perfusion parameters in successful renal cryopreservation. Submitted for publication.

      3. Rebelo, A. E., Graham, E. F., Lillehei, R. C., and Dietzman, R. H.: Freeze-thaw parameters in successful renal cryopreservation. Submitted for publication.

        • Stahl W.M.
        Effect of mannitol on the kidney.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1965; 272: 381
        • Vogelhut P.O.
        Microwave techniques in biophysical measurements.
        J. Microwave Power. 1968; 3: 146
        • Vorburgery C.
        Die akute Wirkung des Diuretikuns Furesemid auf des glomerulum Filtrat, die renal Hämodynamik, die Wasser, Natrium, Chlorid, und Kalium ausscheidundung auf Sauerstoffverbranch der Nieren.
        Klin. Wochenschr. 1964; 42: 833