Society of University Surgeons| Volume 74, ISSUE 2, P263-275, August 1973

Download started.


Utility of anticoagulant drugs in vascular thrombosis: Electron microscopic and biophysical study

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Studies in dogs demonstrated that injuries produced by Fogarty catheterization, electricity, and crushing were different, as evaluated by the interface potential and scanning electron microscope. Fogarty catheterization destroyed the integrity of the vascular potential, evulsing the intima from underlying media usually with much platelets and cells sticking to underlying collagen and causing progressive thrombosis. The positively charged electrode caused much destruction, “building block” surface thrombosis, and obvious geographical destruction. These results were more or less reversed by heparin so that the normal rugae were still discernible. Crushing physically destroyed the integrity of blood vessel walls, markedly reducing normal negative interface potentials. The damaged crevices filled in by what appears to be a smooth platelet fibrin layer. Thrombi under each condition have both different appearance and different cellular structure. All of this is reversed by heparin and promoted by protamine. The thrombotic response to injury is modulated by the mechanism of damage, the order of magnitude of injury, and the coagulant status of the blood and the vascular tree. The effects of injury are modified by heparin and other anticoagulant agents. In the face of continuing blood flow, their application appear to limit the effects of injury.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Chien S.
        Shear dependence of effective cell volume as a determinant of blood viscosity.
        Science. 1970; 168: 977
        • Chien S.
        • Luse S.
        • Usami S.
        • Miller L.
        • Tremont H.
        Effects of manomolecules on rheology and ultrastructure of red cell suspensions.
        in: Sixth European Conference on Microcirculation, Aalborg1970
        • Jorpes J.E.
        Heparin in the treatment of thrombosis.
        Oxford University Press, London1946 (1946)
        • McCutcheon M.
        Chemotaxis in leukocytes.
        Physiol. Rev. 1946; 26: 319
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Pate J.W.
        Electrical potential differences across the normal aorta and aortic grafts in dogs.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1953; 175: 113
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Pate J.W.
        Bioelectric phenomena as an etiologic factor in intravascular thrombosis.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1953; 175: 113
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Harshaw D.H.
        Electroosmotic characteristics of canine aorta and vena cava wall.
        Biophys. J. 1966; 6: 653
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Srinivasan S.
        Studies on the biophysics of intravascular thrombosis.
        Am. J. Surg. 1967; 113: 42
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Pate J.W.
        • Weldon C.H.
        Relations of abnormal and injury electric potential differences to intravascular thrombosis.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1953; 175: 108
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Deutch B.
        • Pate J.W.
        The relationship of bioelectric phenomena and small electric currents to intravascular thrombosis.
        in: Thrombosis and embolism, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Thrombosis and Embolism. Benno Schwabe, Co, Basel, Switzerland1955: 415
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Levine J.
        • Mazlen R.
        • Valmont I.
        Active ion transport across canine blood vessel walls.
        J. Gen. Physiol. 1961; 45: 181
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Burrowes C.B.
        • Ogoniak J.C.
        • Smith A.O.
        • Wesolowski S.A.
        Ionic architecture at the vascular wall interface.
        Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs. 1964; 10: 316
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Himmelfarb E.
        • Lustrin I.
        • Ziskind H.
        Measurement of streaming potentials of mammalian blood vessels, aorta and vena cava in vivo.
        Biophys. J. 1966; 6: 641
        • Sawyer P.N.
        • Zufi D.
        • Wesolowski S.A.
        • Burrowes C.B.
        Electrical surface charge as a factor in maintenance of patency of endarterectomized aorta.
        Surgery. 1966; 59: 1019
        • Schwartz S.
        • Muyshondt E.
        • Penn I.
        Istopic evaluation of bioelectric factors affecting thrombogenesis.
        in: Sawyer P.N. Biophysical mechanisms in vascular homeostasis and intravascular thrombosis. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, N. Y1965: 218
        • Srinivasan S.
        • Burrowes C.B.
        • Lucas T.
        • Bauer S.B.
        • Sawyer P.N.
        Effects of varying electrolyte concentrations on in vitro streaming potentials across canine aorta and carotid arteries.
        in: Fed. Proc. 26. 1967: 550
        • Srinivasan S.
        • Aaron R.K.
        • Chopra P.S.
        • Lucas T.
        • Sawyer P.N.
        Effect of thrombotic and antithrombotic drugs on the surface charge characteristics of canine blood vessels: In vitro and in vivo studies.
        Surgery. 1968; 64: 827
        • Wilner G.D.
        • Nossel H.L.
        • LeRoy E.C.
        Aggregation of platelets by collagen.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1968; Vol. 47: 2616