Original communication| Volume 114, ISSUE 5, P911-914, November 1993

Shear stress increases the release of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 by aortic endothelial cells

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Background. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between shear stress and the release of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by endothelial cells (EC).
      Methods. Bovine aortic EC were seeded in fibronectin-coated cylinders at 1.0 × 106 cells/tube and allowed to reach confluence and to adhere for 48 hours. The experimental groups were subjected to a laminar flow of 100 ml/min (6 dyne/cm2). The control group was subjected to similar incubation conditions without flow. The release of IL-1 and IL-6 by EC was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
      Results. Shear stress increased significantly (p < 0.01) the release of IL-1 and IL-6 by EC. The release of these two cytokines had different kinetics.
      Conclusions. Increasing shear stress facilitates release of IL-1 and IL-6 by EC. Previous reports have shown that IL-1 and IL-6 promote vascular smooth-muscle cell proliferation. Thus abnormal flow conditions with increasing shear stress may predispose to smooth-muscle cell proliferation that characterizes early atherosclerotic plaque development by an interleukin-mediated mechanism.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Ross R
        • Glomset J
        The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
        N Engl J Med. 1976; 295: 369-377
        • Schwartz SM
        Role of endothelial integrity in atherosclerosis.
        Artery. 1980; 8: 305-314
        • Reidy MA
        • Schwartz SM
        Recent advances in molecular pathology. Arterial endothelium-assessment of in vivo injury.
        Exp Mol Pathol. 1984; 41: 419-434
        • Sabbah HN
        • Khraja F
        • Brymer JF
        • Hawkins ET
        • Stein PD
        Blood flow velocity in the right coronary artery; relation to the distribution of atherosclerotic lesions.
        Am J Cardiol. 1984; 53: 1008-1012
        • Reidy MA
        • Schwartz SM
        Endothelial regeneration III time course of intimal changes after small defined injury to rat aortic endothelium.
        Lab Invest. 1981; 44: 301-306
        • Bonin PD
        • Fici GJ
        • Singh JP
        Interleukin 1 promotes proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in coordination with PDGF or a monocyte derived growth factor.
        Exp Cell Res. 1989; 181: 475-482
        • Ikeda U
        • Ikeda M
        • Oohara T
        • Kano S
        • Yaginuma T
        Mitogenic action of Interleukin 1 on vascular smooth muscle cells mediated by PDGF.
        Atherosclerosis. 1990; 84: 183-188
        • Nabata T
        • Morimoto S
        • Koh E
        • Shiraishi T
        • Ogihara T
        Interleukin 6 stimulates c-myc expression and proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.
        Biochem Int. 1990; 20: 445-454
        • Ikeda U
        • Ikeda M
        • Oohara T
        • et al.
        Interleukin 6 stimulates growth of vascular smooth muscle cells in a PDGF-dependent manner.
        Am J Physiol. 1991; 260: H1713-H1717
        • Gay CG
        • Winkles JA
        Interleukin 1 regulates heparin-binding growth factor 2 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.
        in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 88. 1991: 296-300
        • Zarins CK
        • Zatina MA
        • Giddens DP
        • Ku DN
        • Glagov S
        Shear stress regulation of artery lumen diameter in experimental atherogenesis.
        J Vasc Surg. 1987; 5: 413-420
        • Kamiya A
        • Togawa T
        Adaptive regulation of wall shear stress to flow change in the canine carotid artery.
        Am J Physiol. 1980; 239: H14-H21
        • Zarins CK
        • Giddens DP
        • Bharadvaj BK
        • Sottiurai VS
        • Glagov S
        Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis: quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress.
        Circ Res. 1983; 53: 502-514
        • LoGerfo FW
        • Nowak MD
        • Quist WC
        Flow studies in a model carotid bifurcation.
        Arteriosclerosis. 1981; 1: 235-241
        • Ku DN
        • Giddens DP
        • Zarins CK
        • Glagov S
        Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low and oscillating shear stress.
        Arteriosclerosis. 1985; 5: 293-302
        • Nollert MU
        • Eskin SG
        • McIntire LV
        Shear stress increases inositol triphosphate levels in human endothelial cells.
        Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990; 170: 281-287
        • Prasad ARS
        • Nerem RM
        • Schwartz CJ
        • Sprague EA
        Stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine aortic endothelial cells exposed to elevated shear stress.
        J Cell Biol. 1989; 109: 313-320
        • Sjolund M
        • Medin U
        • Sejersen T
        • Heldin CH
        • Thyberg L
        Arterial smooth muscle cells express platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) A chain mRNA, secrete a PDGF-like mitogen, and bind exogenous PDGF in a phenotype- and growth state-dependent manner.
        J Cell Biol. 1988; 106: 403-413
        • Heldin CH
        • Westermark B
        • Wasteson A
        Specific receptors for platelet-derived growth factors on cell derived from connective tissue and glia.
        in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 78. 1981: 3664-3668
        • Nilsson J
        • Thyberg J
        • Heldin CH
        • Westermark B
        • Wasteson A
        Surface binding and internalization of platelet-derived growth factor in human fibroblast.
        in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 80. 1983: 5592-5596
        • Walker LN
        • Bowen-Pope DF
        • Reidy MA
        Production of platelet-derived growth factor-like molecules by cultured arterial smooth muscle cells accompanies proliferation after arterial injury.
        in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 83. 1986: 7311-7315
        • Barrett TB
        • Benditt EP
        Sis (platelet-derived growth factor B chain) gene transcript levels are elevated in human atherosclerotic lesions compared to normal artery.
        in: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 84. 1987: 1099-1103
        • Sterpetti AV
        • Cucina A
        • D'Angelo LS
        • Cardillo B
        • Cavallaro A
        Shear stress modulates the proliferation rate, protein synthesis and mitogenic activity of arterial smooth muscle cells.
        Surgery. 1993; 113: 691-699
        • Shalaby MR
        • Waage A
        • Espevik T
        Cytokine regulation of interleukin 6 production by human endothelial cells.
        Cell Immunol. 1989; 121: 372-382
        • Fibbe WE
        • Schaafsma R
        • Falkenburg F
        • Willemze R
        The biological activities of Interleukin 1.
        Blutalkohol. 1989; 59: 147-156
        • Sironi M
        • Breviario F
        • Proserpio P
        • et al.
        IL-1 stimulates IL-6 production in endothelial cell.
        J Immunol. 1989; 142: 549-553