Background. The management of pancreaticoduodenal endocrine tumors (PETs) remains controversial in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Methods. Twenty-one patients with MEN 1 and PETs were analyzed for outcome of surgery and surveillance with special regard to the genotype based on MEN1 gene mutation analysis. Results. Nine patients had gastrinomas, 5 had nonfunctioning tumors, 4 had insulinomas, 2 had insulinomas and gastrinomas, and 1 had a VIPoma. Seven patients (33%) had malignant tumors. Sixteen patients (76%) were initially treated by pancreatic resections or tumor enucleations or both. Six patients underwent reoperations for recurrences or lymph node metastases or both. Fifteen of the 16 operated patients are alive, and 12 have no evidence of disease after a median follow-up of 78 months (range, 1-198 months). Five patients with gastrinomas or nonfunctioning tumors, but no symptoms, underwent surveillance; 1 of them developed lymph node metastases. Patients with truncating mutations in the N- or C-terminal region (exons 2, 9, or 10) of the MEN1 gene had a significantly higher rate of malignant tumors (55% vs 10%; P <.05) than patients with other mutations. Conclusions. An aggressive surgical approach is justified for PETs in patients with MEN 1. However, MEN1 gene mutations in exons 3 to 8 seem to be associated with mild behavior of PETs, possibly allowing surveillance in asymptomatic patients. (Surgery 2000;128:958-66.)
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*Supported by a grant from the Else-Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftung (D. K. B.).
**Reprint requests: Detlef K. Bartsch, Department of Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg/Germany.
© 2000 Mosby, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.