Although different neoadjuvant therapies are being developed, surgical treatment remains the only curative therapy for esophageal cancer. For years, the procedure of choice for esophageal cancer was the Ivor-Lewis
1operation, later modified, as three-stage esophagectomy by McKeown.
- Lewis I.
The surgical treatment of carcinoma of the oesophagus with special reference to a new operation for growths of the middle 3Rd.
Br J Surg. 1946; 34: 18-31
2With this modified procedure, the esophagus is resected by means of a right-sided thoracotomy combined with a laparotomy using cervical esophagogastric anastomosis. The other frequently used procedure is the transhiatal esophageal resection according to Orringer and Sloan,
- McKeown K.C.
Total three-stage oesophagectomy for cancer of the oesophagus.
Br J Surg. 1976; 63: 259-262
3in which a thoracotomy is avoided. Both procedures have high complication rates, varying from 40% to 80%, and the in-hospital mortality rate averages 5%-7.5% in experienced centers.
- Orringer M.B.
- Sloan H.
Esophagectomy without thoracotomy.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1978; 76: 643-654
- Collard J.M.
- Otte J.B.
- Fiasse R.
- Laterre P.F.
- De Kock M.
- Longueville J.
- et al.
Skeletonizing en bloc esophagectomy for cancer.
Ann Surg. 2001; 234: 25-32
- Lerut T.
- Coosemans W.
- Decker G.
- De Leyn P.
- Moons J.
- Nafteux P.
- et al.
J Surg Oncol. 2005; 92: 218-229
- Law S.
- Wong K.H.
- Kwok K.F.
- Chu K.M.
- Wong J.
Predictive factors for postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality after esophagectomy for cancer.
Ann Surg. 2004; 240: 791-800
- Stein H.J.
- Siewert J.R.
Improved prognosis of resected esophageal cancer.
World J Surg. 2004; 28: 520-525
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- The surgical treatment of carcinoma of the oesophagus with special reference to a new operation for growths of the middle 3Rd.Br J Surg. 1946; 34: 18-31
- Total three-stage oesophagectomy for cancer of the oesophagus.Br J Surg. 1976; 63: 259-262
- Esophagectomy without thoracotomy.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1978; 76: 643-654
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- Surgical techniques.J Surg Oncol. 2005; 92: 218-229
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Published online: January 03, 2008
Accepted: August 25, 2007
© 2008 Mosby, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.