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Operative trauma in low-resource settings: The experience of Médecins Sans Frontières in environments of conflict, postconflict, and disaster

      Background

      Conflicts and disasters remain prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, and injury remains a leading cause of death worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe the operative procedures performed for injury-related pathologies at facilities supported by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to guide the planning of future responses.

      Methods

      A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of all MSF procedures performed between July 2008 and June 2014 for injury-related indications was completed. Individual data points included country of project and date of procedure; age, patient sex, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' score of each patient; indication for surgery, including mechanism of injury; operative procedure; operative urgency; operative order; type of anesthesia; and intraoperative mortality. Injury severity was stratified according to operative order and urgency.

      Results

      A total of 79,715 procedures were performed in MSF projects that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 35,756 (44.9%) were performed specifically for traumatic indications across 17 countries. Even after excluding trauma centers, 29.4% (18,329/62,288) of operative cases were for injuries. Operative trauma procedures were performed most commonly for road traffic injuries (29.9%; 10,686/35,756). The most common procedure for acute trauma was extensive wound debridement (31.6%; 3,165/10,022) whereas burn dressings were the most frequent planned reoperation (27.1%; 4,361/16,078).

      Conclusion

      Trauma remains an important component of the operative care provided in humanitarian assistance. This review of procedures performed by MSF in a variety of settings provides valuable insight into demographics of trauma patients, mechanisms of injury, and surgical capabilities required in planning resource allocation for future humanitarian missions in low- and middle-income countries.
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