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Joint Statement by the Surgery Journal Editors Group* 2018

        We, the editors of surgery journals, believe that conducting sex-inclusive biomedical and clinical research is imperative to improving health outcomes of men and women. Note that we use the word “sex” and not “gender.” Sex is the genotype by which one is born, and gender is the phenotype. It is the chromosomal sex of the human, animal, tissue, or cell to which we are referring. Recent studies have shown that the majority of biomedical research in the field of surgery and related topics is conducted on male animals and male cells, even when studying diseases prevalent in women.
        • Yoon DY
        • Mansukhani NA
        • Stubbs VC
        • Helenowski IB
        • Woodruff TK
        • Kibbe MR
        Sex bias exists in basic science and translational surgical research.
        Human clinical research suffers from a lack of sex-based reporting and sex-based analysis of the results.

        U.S. Government Accountability Office. National Institutes of Health: Better oversight needed to help ensure continued progress including women in health research. 2015, https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-16-13.

        • Mansukhani NA
        • Yoon DY
        • Teter KA
        • Stubbs VC
        • Helenowski IB
        • Woodruff TK
        • et al.
        Determining if sex bias exists in human surgical clinical research.
        Given these findings, the National Institutes of Health has now asked that sex be considered as a biologic variable in all National Institutes of Health–funded research.

        National Institutes of Health. Consideration of sex as a biological variable in NIH-funded research. 2015, https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-15-102.html.

        As such, we support uniform, defined reporting of the sex used for human, animal, tissue, and cell research in all manuscripts published in our journals. If only one sex is reported, authors must include a justification statement as to why only a single-sex study was conducted. We also will require sex-based reporting and analysis of data for all human, animal, tissue, and cell research. As a group, we will require this among all our collective surgery journals.
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        References

          • Yoon DY
          • Mansukhani NA
          • Stubbs VC
          • Helenowski IB
          • Woodruff TK
          • Kibbe MR
          Sex bias exists in basic science and translational surgical research.
          Surgery. 2014; 156: 508-516
        1. U.S. Government Accountability Office. National Institutes of Health: Better oversight needed to help ensure continued progress including women in health research. 2015, https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-16-13.

          • Mansukhani NA
          • Yoon DY
          • Teter KA
          • Stubbs VC
          • Helenowski IB
          • Woodruff TK
          • et al.
          Determining if sex bias exists in human surgical clinical research.
          JAMA Surg. 2016; 151: 1022-1030
        2. National Institutes of Health. Consideration of sex as a biological variable in NIH-funded research. 2015, https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-15-102.html.