The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the incidence of surgical site infection after pancreatoduodenectomy decreased after changing the prophylactic antibiotic to a third-generation cephalosporin in patients with unknown preoperative bile culture results after biliary drainage.
In a retrospective study of 138 pancreatoduodenectomy patients who underwent endoscopic biliary stenting and for whom recent preoperative bile culture results were unavailable, cefazolin sodium hydrate was administered as perioperative prophylactic antibiotic therapy from 2010 to 2014 (n = 69); whereas ceftriaxone was administered from 2014 to 2017 (n = 69) based on the results of institutional culture surveillance. The incidence of surgical site infection was compared between the two groups and the risk factor of surgical site infection was also evaluated.
The incidence of overall surgical site infection in the ceftriaxone group was significantly lower than that in the cefazolin sodium hydrate group for both Clavien-Dindo grade ≥II (28% versus 52%, P = .005) and Clavien-Dindo grade ≥IIIa (20% vs 41%, P = .016). A multivariate analysis revealed that the prophylactic administration of cefazolin sodium hydrate was associated with a higher incidence of overall surgical site infection in both Clavien-Dindo grade ≥II and Clavien-Dindo grade ≥IIIa (odds ratio 2.56, P = .019; odds ratio 3.03, P = .020, respectively). In the cefazolin sodium hydrate group, most of the patients with positive perioperative cultures had Enterobacteriaceae, which were intrinsically resistant to cefazolin sodium hydrate, and most were susceptible to ceftriaxone.
The prophylactic administration of third-generation cephalosporin reduced the incidence of surgical site infection after pancreatoduodenectomy in patients who underwent preoperative endoscopic biliary stenting.
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Published online: October 26, 2018
Accepted: September 24, 2018
Received in revised form: September 22, 2018
Received: May 23, 2018
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