In the accompanying review by Ekman et al,
1the CRISPR gene editing system is described along with examples of potential clinical applications of import for surgeons. Broadly considered, CRISPR capitalizes on RNA-guided site specificity to make precise, single-stranded breaks in genomic DNA to facilitate insertions, deletions, and knock-in or knock-out mutations.
- O’Brien S.J.
- Ekman M.B.
- Manek S.
- et al.
CRISPR-mediated gene editing for the surgeon scientist.
Surgery. 2019; 166: 129-137
2Gene editing that is effective, specific, and sustainable has long been a dream for biologists. As a result, this technology has been received with great enthusiasm because it is more efficient, technically simpler, can be reprogrammed quickly, and is relatively inexpensive relative to the technology of zinc finger nuclease and transcription factor-like effector nucleases. As with much of the new biotechnology created in the past 50 years, however, the host immune response, unintended editing events, off-target effects, creation of mosaic genomes (combination of edited and unedited target genes), and even the important ethics of genetic intervention, especially with germline mutations, are among some of the concerns surrounding generalized, widespread implementation of CRISPR for human therapy.
- Adli M.
The CRISPR tool kit for genome editing and beyond.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9: 1911
- Coller B.S.
Ethics of human genome editing.
Ann Rev Med. 2019; 70: 289-305
- Jiang D.J.
- Xu C.L.
- Tsang S.H.
Revolution in gene medicine therapy and genome surgery.
Genes. 2018; 9: 575
5Additional research and time will determine whether CRISPR technology will have an impact similar to polymerase chain reaction, vaccine therapy, and genomics, or if it will have the same fate as other biotechnology that are now historic vignettes, such as Xigris, differential display, and aprotinin.
- Foss D.V.
- Hochstrasser M.L.
- Wilson R.C.
Clinical applications of CRISPR-based genome editing and diagnostics.
Transfusion. 2019; 59: 1389-1399
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Surgery
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- CRISPR-mediated gene editing for the surgeon scientist.Surgery. 2019; 166: 129-137
- The CRISPR tool kit for genome editing and beyond.Nat Commun. 2018; 9: 1911
- Ethics of human genome editing.Ann Rev Med. 2019; 70: 289-305
- Revolution in gene medicine therapy and genome surgery.Genes. 2018; 9: 575
- Clinical applications of CRISPR-based genome editing and diagnostics.Transfusion. 2019; 59: 1389-1399
- Will genetic engineering carry xenotransplantation of pig islets to the clinic?.Curr Diab Rep. 2018; 18: 103
- First CRISPR clinical trial begins in Europe.Scienceline. 2018;https://scienceline.org/2018/11/first-crispr-clinical-trial-begins-in-europe/Date accessed: April 10, 2019
- Industry advances landmark CRISPR candidate into the clinic.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2018; 17: 697
- Go-ahead for first in-body CRISPR medicine testing.Nature Biotech. 2018;https://www.nature.com/articles/d41587-018-00003-2Date accessed: April 10, 2019
- An “off-the-shelf” fratricide-resistant CAR-T for the treatment of T cell hematologic malignancies.Leukemia. 2018; 32: 1970-1983
- The impact of whole-genome sequencing on the primary care and outcomes of healthy adult patients: a pilot randomized trial.Ann Int Med. 2017; 167: 159-169
- What are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)?.https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/genomicresearch/snpDate accessed: April 10, 2019
- Chinese researcher claims first gene edited babies. AP.https://apnews.com/4997bb7aa36c45449b488e19ac83e86dDate accessed: April 10, 2019
- Chinese scientists raise ethical questions with first gene-edited babies. ScienceNews.https://www.sciencenews.org/article/chinese-scientists-raise-ethical-questions-first-crispr-gene-edited-babiesDate accessed: April 10, 2019
- Is the CRISPR baby controversy the start of a terrifying new chapter in gene editing? Vox.https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2018/11/30/18119589/crispr-gene-editing-he-jiankuiDate accessed: April 10, 2019
- International outcry over genome-edited baby claim.Nature. 2018; 563: 607-608
- CCR5 Is a therapeutic target for recovery after stroke and traumatic brain injury.Cell. 2019; 176: 1143-1157
- Field-deployable viral diagnostics using CRISPR-Cas13.Science. 2018; 360: 444-448
Published online: April 25, 2019
Accepted: March 21, 2019
Conflicts of interest: The author has indicated that he has no conflict of interest regarding the content of this article.
© 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ScienceDirectAccess this article on ScienceDirect
- CRISPR-mediated gene editing for the surgeon scientistSurgeryVol. 166Issue 2
- PreviewTremendous advances have occurred in gene editing during the past 20 years with the development of a number of systems. The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)–associated protein 9 (Cas9) system represents an exciting area of research. This review examines both the relevant studies pertaining to the history, current status, and modifications of this system, in comparison with other gene-editing systems and future applications, and limitations of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system, with a focus on applications of relevance to the surgeon scientist.