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Outcome of lateral pelvic lymph node dissection with total mesorectal excision in treatment of rectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Published:December 11, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.11.010

      Abstract

      Background

      Total mesorectal excision is the gold standard treatment of mid- and low-lying rectal cancer. Lateral pelvic lymph node dissection has been suggested as an approach to decrease recurrence and improve survival. Our meta-analysis presented here aimed to review the current outcomes of lateral pelvic lymph node dissection and total mesorectal excision in comparison with total mesorectal excision alone.

      Methods

      A systematic literature search querying electronic databases was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We reviewed articles that reported the outcomes of lateral pelvic lymph node dissection combined with total mesorectal excision in comparison with total mesorectal excision alone. The main outcome measures were local recurrence, distant metastasis, overall and disease free-survival, and complications.

      Results

      This systematic review included 29 studies of 10,646 patients. Of those patients, 39.4% underwent total mesorectal excision with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection. The median operation time for the lateral pelvic lymph node dissection + total mesorectal excision was significantly longer than total mesorectal excision alone (360 minutes versus 294.7 minutes, P = .02). Lateral pelvic lymph node dissection + total mesorectal excision was associated with higher odds of overall complications (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.18–1.87, P < .001) and urinary dysfunction (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.21–3.67, P = .008) than total mesorectal excision alone. Both groups had similar rates of male sexual dysfunction (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.94–2.79, P = .08), anastomotic leakage (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.69–1.93, P = .59), local recurrence (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.75–1.25, P = .79), distant metastasis (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.76–1.2, P = .72), overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.056, 95% confidence interval: 0.98–1.13, P = .13), and disease-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.07, P = .37).

      Conclusion

      Lateral pelvic lymph node dissection was not associated with a significant reduction of recurrence rates or improvement in survival as compared with total mesorectal excision alone; however, LPLND was associated with longer operation time and increased complication rate.
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