Appendix| Volume 172, ISSUE 3, P798-806, September 2022

Defining the optimal time to appendectomy: A step toward precision surgery



      We aimed to investigate the association between time from admission to appendectomy on perioperative outcomes in order to determine optimal time-to-surgery windows.


      We performed a retrospective review of all the appendectomies performed between July 2018 to May 2020. We first compared the perioperative outcomes using preselected time-to-surgery cut-offs, then determined optimal safe windows for surgery, and finally identified subgroups of patients who may require early intervention.


      Six hundred twenty-one appendectomies were performed in the time period. The patients with a time-to-surgery of ≥12 hours had a significantly longer length of stay (median 2 days [interquartile range 1–3] vs 3 days [interquartile range 2–4], mean difference = 0.74 [95% confidence interval 0.32–1.17, P = .0006]) and higher 30-day readmission risk (odds ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.12–5.96, P = .0266) versus those with a time-to-surgery of <12 hours. These differences persisted when the time-to-surgery was dichotomized by <24 or ≥24 hours. A time-to-surgery beyond 25 hours was associated with a 3.34-fold increased odds of open conversion (P = .040), longer operation time (mean difference 15.8 mins, 95% confidence interval 3.4–28.3, P = .013) and longer postoperative length of stay (mean difference 10.3 hours, 95% confidence interval 3.4–20.2, P = .042) versus a time-to-surgery of <25 hours. The patients with time-to-surgery beyond 11 hours had a 1.35-fold increased odds of 30-day readmission (95% confidence interval 1.02–5.43, P = .046) compared with those who underwent appendectomy before 11 hours. Older patients, patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist score II to III, and individuals with long duration of preadmission symptoms had higher risk of prolonged operation time, open conversion, increased length of stay, and postoperative morbidity with increasing time-to-surgery.


      This study identified the safe windows for appendectomy to be 11 to 25 hours from admission for most perioperative outcomes. However, certain patient subgroups may be less tolerant of surgical delays.
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