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Infectious complications after surgery for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: A single Western center experience

      Abstract

      Background

      The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for surgical infectious complications and the outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma according to the microbiological examinations.

      Methods

      Patients who underwent surgery for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma in the last decade were enrolled, and all clinical and microbiological data were collected from a retrospective monocentric database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed distinguishing patients who developed at least 1 surgical infectious complication (surgical site infections, acute bacterial cholangitis, bacteremia).

      Results

      A total of 98 patients were included. Among patients who developed surgical infectious complications (51%), many preoperative characteristics were significantly more frequent: American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 (P = .026), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥3.4 (P = .001), endoscopic sphincterotomy (P = .032), ≥2 biliary drainage procedures (P = .013), acute cholangitis (P = .012), multidrug resistant (P = .009), and ≥3 microorganisms’ detection (P = .042); whereas during the postoperative period, surgical infectious complications were associated to increased incidence of intensive care unit readmission (P = .031), major complications (P < .001), posthepatectomy liver failure (P = .005), ascites (P = .008), biliary leakage (P = .008), 90-day readmission (P = .003), and prolonged length of hospital stay (P < .001). At the multivariate analysis 3 independent preoperative risk factors for surgical infectious complications were identified: neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥3.4 (P = .004), endoscopic sphincterotomy (P = .009), and acute cholangitis (P = .013). The presence of multidrug-resistance in the perioperative biliary cultures was related to postoperative multidrug-resistant species from all cultures (P < .001) and organ/space and incisional–surgical site infections (P ≤ .044).

      Conclusion

      Infective complications after surgery for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma worsen the short-term outcomes. A careful microbiological surveillance should be carried out in all cases to prevent and promptly treat surgical infectious complications.

      Graphical abstract

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