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Storage with ethanol attenuates the red blood cell storage lesion

Published:September 12, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2022.07.016

      Abstract

      Background

      Current management of hemorrhagic shock relies on control of surgical bleeding along with resuscitation with packed red blood cells and plasma in a 1-to-1 ratio. Transfusion, however, is not without consequence as red blood cells develop a series of biochemical and physical changes during storage termed “the red blood cell storage lesion.” Previous data has suggested that ethanol may stabilize the red blood cell membrane, resulting in improved deformability. We hypothesized that storage of packed red blood cells with ethanol would alter the red blood cell storage lesion.

      Methods

      Mice underwent donation and storage of red blood cells with standard storage conditions in AS-3 alone or ethanol at concentrations of 0.07%, 0.14%, and 0.28%. The red blood cell storage lesion parameters of microvesicles, Band-3, free hemoglobin, annexin V, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility were measured and compared. In additional experiments, the mice underwent hemorrhage and resuscitation with stored packed red blood cells to further evaluate the in vivo inflammatory impact.

      Results

      Red blood cells stored with ethanol demonstrated decreased microvesicle accumulation and Band-3 levels. There were no differences in phosphatidylserine or cell-free hemoglobin levels. After hemorrhage and resuscitation with packed red blood cells stored with 0.07% ethanol, mice demonstrated decreased serum levels of interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, keratinocyte chemokine, and tumor necrosis factor α compared to those mice receiving packed red blood cells stored with additive solution-3.

      Conclusion

      Storage of murine red blood cells with low-dose ethanol results in decreased red blood cell storage lesion severity. Resuscitation with packed red blood cells stored with 0.07% ethanol also resulted in a decreased systemic inflammatory response in a murine model of hemorrhage.
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