Black patients are more likely to undergo parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism

Published:October 01, 2022DOI:



      Prior studies have demonstrated racial disparities in the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism among dialysis patients. Our primary objective was to study the racial and socioeconomic differences in the timing and likelihood of parathyroidectomy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.


      We used the United States Renal Data System to identify 634,428 adult (age ≥18) patients who were on maintenance dialysis between 2006 and 2016 with Medicare as their primary payor. Adjusted multivariable Cox regression was performed to quantify the differences in parathyroidectomy by race.


      Of this cohort, 27.3% (173,267) were of Black race. Compared to 15.4% of White patients, 23.1% of Black patients lived in a neighborhood that was below a predefined poverty level (P < .001). The cumulative incidence of parathyroidectomy at 10 years after dialysis initiation was 8.8% among Black patients compared to 4.3% among White patients (P < .001). On univariable analysis, Black patients were more likely to undergo parathyroidectomy (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.74–1.93). This association persisted after adjusting for age, sex, cause of end-stage renal disease, body mass index, comorbidities, dialysis modality, and poverty level (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.27–1.43). Therefore, patient characteristics and socioeconomic status explained 26% of the association between race and likelihood of parathyroidectomy.


      Black patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal disease are more likely to undergo parathyroidectomy with shorter intervals between dialysis initiation and parathyroidectomy. This association is only partially explained by patient characteristics and socioeconomic factors.
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