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    Published:October 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2022.07.049
        Dr Brenessa Lindeman (Birmingham, AL): I have a 2-part question for you. The first is related to the length of time that trainees are on your rotation. There are several studies that have demonstrated it is the familiarity between the faculty member and the trainee that facilitates the most meaningful autonomy. Could you please comment on the length of rotation and how that familiarity may have impacted your findings? The second question relates to the term meaningful autonomy. So, rather than what is the degree of autonomy that I provided you during this operation, with the implication that I should be letting you do the case with minimal supervision, the question instead is forward-looking. If we were faced with the same scenario tomorrow, how much autonomy would I provide, or how much supervision would you need to be safe? I’m wondering if you could extrapolate how that may have affected your results?
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