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Positive drain fluid culture on postoperative day 1 predicts clinically relevant pancreatic fistula in early drain removal with higher drain fluid amylase after pancreaticoduodenectomy

Published:November 16, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2022.10.008

      Abstract

      Background

      This study aims to clarify the risk factors of clinically relevant pancreatic fistula after early drain removal with higher drain fluid amylase after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Clinical evaluation of early drain removal with a higher drain fluid amylase after pancreaticoduodenectomy has been controversial. The safety and effectiveness have not been sufficiently examined.

      Methods

      Between 2015 and 2020, prophylactic surgical drains were prospectively removed on postoperative day 4 regardless of drain fluid amylase level in 364 study-eligible patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients were classified according to drain fluid amylase on postoperative day 1: 281 patients with drain fluid amylase <4,000 U/L, and 83 patients with drain fluid amylase ≥4,000 U/L.

      Results

      Clinically relevant pancreatic fistula occurred in 40 of 364 enrolled patients (11.0%). In the entire cohort, male, positive postoperative day 1 drain fluid culture, and postoperative day 1 drain fluid amylase ≥4,000 U/L were independent risk factors for clinically relevant pancreatic fistula after early drain removal. When stratifying by 4,000 U/L of postoperative day 1 drain fluid amylase, the rate of clinically relevant pancreatic fistula in postoperative day 1 drain fluid amylase <4,000 U/L was significantly lower than that in postoperative day 1 drain fluid amylase ≥4,000 U/L (4% vs 35%, P < .001) after early drain removal. Moreover, in postoperative day 1 drain fluid amylase <4,000 U/L, positive postoperative day 1 drain fluid culture did not develop clinically relevant pancreatic fistula after early drain removal. However, in postoperative day 1 drain fluid amylase ≥4,000 U/L, multivariate analysis clarified that positive postoperative day 1 drain fluid culture was the only independent risk factor of clinically relevant pancreatic fistula after early drain removal (odds ratio 26.27, 95% confidence interval 5.59–123.56, P = .001).

      Conclusion

      Positive drain fluid culture on postoperative day 1 might predict clinically relevant pancreatic fistula in early drain removal with a higher drain fluid amylase.

      Graphical abstract

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