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Understanding the impact of health inequities in surgical complications: Rethinking morbidity and mortality conferences

Published:November 11, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2022.10.017
      Morbidity and Mortality (M & M) conferences have been a mainstay of physician education, patient care analysis, and systems improvement for more than a century. The M & M conferences began with Ernest Codman’s “End Results System” to provide objective quality assessment. This system used the clinical history and outcomes of patients to systematically review adverse outcomes and identify errors.
      • Gregor A.
      • Taylor D.
      Morbidity and mortality conference: its purpose reclaimed and grounded in theory.
      The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) defined 6 determined core competencies—interpersonal and communication skills, medical knowledge, patient care, practice-based learning and improvement, professionalism, and systems-based practice.
      • Kravet S.J.
      • Howell E.
      • Wright S.M.
      Morbidity and mortality conference, grand rounds, and the ACGME’s core competencies.
      Frequently, departments have used M & M conferences to address both proficiencies and deficiencies across many of those areas. Healthcare inequities are widespread, problematic, and exist in surgery. We describe a method by which M & M can be modified to include the contribution of healthcare inequities to surgical complications.
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