Advertisement

Arts and Scalpels: Exploring the Role of Art in Surgery

      The intersection of art and surgery is considerable, overlapping in technique, inspiration, and evolution. The surgical field is one that erupts with color, creativity, and intrinsic art. It’s true essence lies far from the algorithmic strait-laced perception that non-surgeons may unfortunately bestow upon it. It’s artistic foundations root in originality, critical thinking, and ingenuity from both innate and acquired sources; there is art in surgery and art of surgery. Two distinct yet inextricable entities that can enable a cumulative masterpiece of sorts. What surgeon has not said, heard, or thought: ‘what beautiful technique,’ ‘what a graceful approach,’ ‘will you look at those planes!’? Art in surgery can be all-encompassing; if looked for, it is ubiquitous… For the art of and in surgery exists within the body, within the operating room, and within the profession -- through music, literature, and visual arts.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Hasfeldt D.
        • Laerkner E.
        • Birkelund R.
        Noise in the operating room--what do we know? A review of the literature.
        J Perianesth Nurs. 2010; 25: 380-386
        • Fritsch M.H.
        • Chacko C.E.
        • Patterson E.B.
        Operating room sound level hazards for patients and physicians.
        Otol Neurotol. 2010; 31: 715-721
        • Narayanan A.
        • Gray A.R.
        First, do no harmony: an examination of attitudes to music played in operating theatres.
        N Z Med J. 2018; 131: 68-74
        • Yamasaki A.
        • Mise Y.
        • Mise Y.
        • et al.
        Musical preference correlates closely to professional roles and specialties in operating room: A multicenter cross-sectional cohort study with 672 participants.
        Surgery. 2016; 159: 1260-1268
        • Allen K.
        • Blascovich J.
        Effects of music on cardiovascular reactivity among surgeons.
        Jama. 1994; 272: 882-884
        • Yang C.
        • Möttig F.
        • Weitz J.
        • Reissfelder C.
        • Mees S.T.
        Effect of Genre and amplitude of music during laparoscopic surgery.
        Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2022;
        • Siu K.C.
        • Suh I.H.
        • Mukherjee M.
        • Oleynikov D.
        • Stergiou N.
        The effect of music on robot-assisted laparoscopic surgical performance.
        Surg Innov. 2010; 17: 306-311
        • Lies S.R.
        • Zhang A.Y.
        Prospective Randomized Study of the Effect of Music on the Efficiency of Surgical Closures.
        Aesthet Surg J. 2015; 35: 858-863
        • Ayoub C.M.
        • Rizk L.B.
        • Yaacoub C.I.
        • Gaal D.
        • Kain Z.N.
        Music and ambient operating room noise in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia.
        Anesth Analg. 2005; 100: 1316-1319
        • Arai Y.C.
        • Sakakibara S.
        • Ito A.
        • et al.
        Intra-operative natural sound decreases salivary amylase activity of patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair under epidural anesthesia.
        Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008; 52: 987-990
        • Conrad C.
        • Konuk Y.
        • Werner P.
        • et al.
        The effect of defined auditory conditions versus mental loading on the laparoscopic motor skill performance of experts.
        Surg Endosc. 2010; 24: 1347-1352
        • Co M.
        • Fong S.M.
        • Lau Y.C.C.
        Effect of Background Music in the Operating Room on Surgical Outcomes: A Prospective Single-Blinded Case-Control Study.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2022; 235: 447-453
        • Conrad C.
        Music for healing: from magic to medicine.
        Lancet. 2010; 376: 1980-1981
        • Conrad C.
        • Niess H.
        • Jauch K.W.
        • Bruns C.J.
        • Hartl W.
        • Welker L.
        Overture for growth hormone: requiem for interleukin-6?.
        Crit Care Med. 2007; 35: 2709-2713
        • Tilt A.C.
        • Werner P.D.
        • Brown D.F.
        • et al.
        Low degree of formal education and musical experience predict degree of music-induced stress reduction in relatives and friends of patients: a single-center, randomized controlled trial.
        Ann Surg. 2013; 257: 834-838
        • Rui M.
        • Lee J.E.
        • Vauthey J.N.
        • Conrad C.
        Enhancing surgical performance by adopting expert musicians' practice and performance strategies.
        Surgery. 2018; 163: 894-900
        • Conrad C.
        • Konuk Y.
        • Werner P.D.
        • et al.
        A quality improvement study on avoidable stressors and countermeasures affecting surgical motor performance and learning.
        Ann Surg. 2012; 255: 1190-1194
        • Baimas-George M.
        • Vrochides D.
        The Sorting Hat of Medicine: Why Hufflepuffs Wear Stethoscopes and Slytherins Carry Scalpels.
        J Surg Educ. 2020;
        • Baimas-George M.R.
        • Levi D.M.
        • Eskind L.B.
        • et al.
        Ex vivo liver resection coupled with associated liver partition and portal vein ligation: Combining existing techniques to achieve surgical resectability.
        J Surg Oncol. 2019; 119: 771-776
        • Forrester J.A.
        • Forrester J.D.
        • Wren S.M.
        Trends in Country-Specific Surgical Randomized Clinical Trial Publications.
        JAMA Surg. 2018; 153: 386-388
        • Shawhan R.R.
        • Hatch Q.M.
        • Bingham J.R.
        • et al.
        Have we progressed in the surgical literature? Thirty-year trends in clinical studies in 3 surgical journals.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 2015; 58: 115-121
        • McCulloch P.
        • Taylor I.
        • Sasako M.
        • Lovett B.
        • Griffin D.
        Randomised trials in surgery: problems and possible solutions.
        Bmj. 2002; 324: 1448-1451
        • Hosseini M.
        • Lewis J.
        • Zwart H.
        • Gordijn B.
        An Ethical Exploration of Increased Average Number of Authors Per Publication.
        Sci Eng Ethics. 2022; 28: 25
        • Paivio A.
        • Csapo K.
        Picture superiority in free, recall: Imagery or dual coding?.
        Cognitive Psychology. 1973; https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(73)90032-7
        • Kearns C.
        • Kearns N.
        • Paisley A.M.
        The art of consent: visual materials help adult patients make informed choices about surgical care.
        J Vis Commun Med. 2020; 43: 76-83
        • Baimas-George M.
        • Watson M.
        • Paton B.L.
        • et al.
        Novel Way to Improve Satisfaction, Comprehension, and Anxiety in Caregivers: A Randomized Trial Exploring the Use of Comprehensive, Illustrated Children's Books for Pediatric Surgical Populations.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2022; 234: 263-273
        • Forsmo H.M.
        • Pfeffer F.
        • Rasdal A.
        • Sintonen H.
        • Körner H.
        • Erichsen C.
        Pre- and postoperative stoma education and guidance within an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme reduces length of hospital stay in colorectal surgery.
        Int J Surg. 2016; 36: 121-126
        • Tweed TTT
        • Woortman C.
        • Tummers S.
        • Bakens M.
        • van Bastelaar J.
        • Stoot J.
        Reducing hospital stay for colorectal surgery in ERAS setting by means of perioperative patient education of expected day of discharge.
        Int J Colorectal Dis. 2021; 36: 1535-1542
        • Baimas-George M.R.
        • Levi D.M.
        • Vrochides D.
        Three Possible Variations in Ex Vivo Hepatectomy: Achieving R0 Resection by Auto-transplantation.
        J Gastrointest Surg. 2019; 23: 2294-2297
        • Niekrash C.E.
        • Copes L.E.
        • Gonzalez R.A.
        Frank Netter's legacy: Interprofessional anatomy instruction.
        Anat Sci Educ. 2015; 8: 348-359
        • Selzer R.
        The Knife.
        Artbeat. 2014;
        • El Boghdady M.
        • Ewalds-Kvist B.M.
        The innate aptitude's effect on the surgical task performance: a systematic review.
        Updates Surg. 2021; 73: 2079-2093
        • Kramp K.H.
        • van Det M.J.
        • Hoff C.
        • Veeger N.J.
        • ten Cate Hoedemaker H.O.
        • Pierie J.P.
        The predictive value of aptitude assessment in laparoscopic surgery: a meta-analysis.
        Med Educ. 2016; 50: 409-427
        • Buckley C.E.
        • Kavanagh D.O.
        • Gallagher T.K.
        • Conroy R.M.
        • Traynor O.J.
        • Neary P.C.
        Does aptitude influence the rate at which proficiency is achieved for laparoscopic appendectomy?.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2013; 217: 1020-1027
        • Buckley C.E.
        • Kavanagh D.O.
        • Nugent E.
        • Ryan D.
        • Traynor O.J.
        • Neary P.C.
        The impact of aptitude on the learning curve for laparoscopic suturing.
        Am J Surg. 2014; 207: 263-270
        • Gallagher A.G.
        • Cowie R.
        • Crothers I.
        • Jordan-Black J.A.
        • Satava R.M.
        PicSOr: an objective test of perceptual skill that predicts laparoscopic technical skill in three initial studies of laparoscopic performance.
        Surg Endosc. 2003; 17: 1468-1471
        • Ericsson K.A.
        Deliberate practice and acquisition of expert performance: a general overview.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15: 988-994
        • Sun R.R.
        • Wang Y.
        • Fast A.
        • et al.
        Influence of musical background on surgical skills acquisition.
        Surgery. 2021; 170: 75-80
        • Amunts K.
        • Schlaug G.
        • Jäncke L.
        • et al.
        Motor cortex and hand motor skills: structural compliance in the human brain.
        Hum Brain Mapp. 1997; 5: 206-215
        • Spahn C.
        • Krampe F.
        • Nusseck M.
        Classifying Different Types of Music Performance Anxiety.
        Front Psychol. 2021; 12538535
        • Spahn C.
        Treatment and prevention of music performance anxiety.
        Prog Brain Res. 2015; 217: 129-140