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A simulation curriculum for laparoscopic common bile duct exploration, balloon sphincterotomy, and endobiliary stenting: Associations with resident performance and autonomy in the operating room

Published:December 12, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2022.11.007

      Abstract

      Background

      Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration is safe and effective for managing choledocholithiasis, but laparoscopic common bile duct exploration is rarely performed, which threatens surgical trainee proficiency. This study tests the hypothesis that prior operative or simulation experience with laparoscopic common bile duct exploration is associated with greater resident operative performance and autonomy without adversely affecting patient outcomes.

      Methods

      This longitudinal cohort study included 33 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in cases involving postgraduate years 3, 4, and 5 general surgery residents at a single institution during the implementation of a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration simulation curriculum. For each of the 33 cases, resident performance and autonomy were rated by residents and attendings, the resident’s prior operative and simulation experience were recorded, and patient outcomes were ascertained from electronic health records for comparison among 3 cohorts: prior operative experience, prior simulation experience, and no prior experience.

      Results

      Operative approach was similar among cohorts. Overall morbidity was 6.1% and similar across cohorts. The operative performance scores were higher in prior experience cohorts according to both residents (3.0 [2.8–3.0] vs 2.0 [2.0–3.0]; P = .01) and attendings (3.0 [3.0–4.0]; P < .001). The autonomy scores were higher in prior experience cohorts according to both residents (2.0 [2.0–3.0] vs 2.0 [2.0–2.0]; P = .005) and attendings (2.5 [2.0–3.0] vs 2.0 [1.0–2.0]; P = .001). Prior simulation and prior operative experience had similar associations with performance and autonomy.

      Conclusion

      Simulation experience with laparoscopic common bile duct exploration was associated with greater resident operative performance and autonomy, with effects that mimic prior operative experience. This illustrates the potential for simulation-based training to improve resident operative performance and autonomy for laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.
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