The utility of bile juice culture analysis for the management of postoperative infection after pancreaticoduodenectomy

Published:December 20, 2022DOI:



      Surgical site infections are common after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Our institution routinely performs intraoperative bile culture with pancreaticoduodenectomy. Herein we examined whether antibiotic selection based on bile culture analysis reduced the surgical site infection risk after pancreaticoduodenectomy.


      A total of 349 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with intraoperative bile cultures in our institution between 2008 and 2019. Patients were categorized into “group A” (196 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2008 and 2013) or “group B” (153 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2018 and 2019). Group A received cefazoline perioperatively and for 2 days postoperatively, whereas group B received piperacillin-tazobactam instead based on the bile culture findings in group A.


      In group A, 91 (46.4%) intraoperative bile cultures were positive, and surgical site infections occurred in 61 patients (31.1%). A total of 32 patients had both positive bile culture and surgical site infection, of whom 23 (71.9%) exhibited the same microorganisms in the biliary and surgical site infection cultures. Due to the common finding of cefazoline-resistant Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacter spp. in group A, group B received piperacillin-tazobactam. Surgical site infection incidence in group B was 18.3% (n = 28), which was significantly lower than in group A (P = .006). Cefazoline-resistant Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacter spp., respectively, were cultured in 69.8% and 24.3% of patients with preoperative biliary drainage, compared with 32.2% and 9.7% of patients without preoperative biliary drainage.


      The perioperative selection of antibiotics based on bile culture findings at pancreaticoduodenectomy can reduce the incidence of surgical site infection.
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