• Information for Authors
• Informed consent and patient details (IRB AND HIPAA)
• Registration of Human studies
• Animal/human experiments
• Permission
• Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses
• Open Access
• Research data

Kevin E. Behrns, M.D.
Chief Medical Officer
UF Health Central Florida
Leesburg, FL MO 34748

Steven D. Wexner, M.D., Ph.D. (Hon), FACS, FRCS (Eng),FRCS (Ed), FRCSI (Hon),Hon FRCS (Glasg)
Director, Digestive Disease Center
Professor and Chair, Department of Colorectal Surgery
Cleveland Clinic Florida
Weston, FL 33331

Managing Editor

David Newcombe
20 North Street
Plymouth, MA 02360
Tel: 508-732-6767
Fax: 508-732-6766
e-mail: [email protected]

Information for Authors

All manuscripts should be submitted online at Please note: Submitted manuscripts will be screened by one of several electronic programs for overlap in content or writing with published articles.
The policies and procedures for Surgery generally follow those of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, as published in the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication" (updated October 2008;
Manuscripts are considered for publication if and only if the article and its key features (1) are not under consideration elsewhere, (2) have not been published, and (3) will not appear in print or online prior to appearing in Surgery. This restriction does not apply to abstracts or posters published in connection with scientific meetings; in addition, press reports arising from a conference will not be considered prior publication, provided that authors who discuss their conference presentation or poster with reporters are careful not to offer more detail about their work than was contained in the oral or poster presentation.
Submission of a manuscript is understood to indicate that the authors have complied with all policies as delineated in this document. Individuals who violate these policies are subject to editorial action including but not limited to (1) disclosure of violations to employers, funding agencies, or other journal offices and/or (2) publication of a retraction, correction, editorial expression of concern, or editorial. Also, all authors must read and approve the final submission or re-submission of a revision.
When a manuscript is received by Surgery that has at least one author who is also one of the Editors-in-Chief of the journal Surgery or is from one of the Editors-in-Chief's institutions, that Editor will recuse himself from any editorial responsibilities for the manuscript. In addition, individuals who have potential conflicts of interest with any manuscript sent to them for review are asked to recuse themselves from serving as peer reviewers.
Usually at least three (and often more) referees are asked to review each article. Acceptance for publication is based on originality, significance, and scientific merit; these manuscripts should further the knowledge and practice of surgery and be comprehensive. Revisions may be made to add clarity and understanding without altering the meaning and to follow an overall editorial approach by Surgery.
The journal Surgery invites concise, original articles of new matter in the broad field of clinical and experimental surgery as well as surgical organization, research in global surgery and surgical history. We are especially interested in articles on surgical education, surgical outcomes, and healthcare delivery. Emphasis for acceptance includes conciseness and clarity of presentation as well as appropriateness of English usage.
All authors must observe most strictly the rules against dual publication.

Informed consent and patient details (IRB AND HIPAA)

Manuscripts describing research involving human subjects must document both IRB approval/exemption and that informed consent was obtained from patients who served as subjects of the investigation. A statement about HIPAA compliance is also necessary for human studies from the United States and other countries in which the protection of patient information by obtaining patient consent is required by law. In the event that either the Editors or referees question the propriety of the human investigation with respect to the risk to the subjects or to the means of obtaining informed consent, Surgery may request more detailed information about the safeguards employed and the procedures used to obtain consent. Minutes of the local human experimentation committees that reviewed and approved the research may also be requested.

"Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission."

Registration of Human studies

All human studies that are prospective, whether they are randomized or not, MUST be registered in a national or international registry available to the public before they can be published. A readily available registry is the website where the study can be registered quickly and easily.

Animal/human experiments

For animal and all human experiments, the sex of animal used must be indicated. If both males and females were used, the number from each sex must be indicated, and it must be indicated whether the sex of animal was considered a factor in the statistical analysis of the data. If only one sex was used, the rationale for using only one sex must be indicated. For cell culture experiments, the sex from which primary cell cultures or tissues were obtained must be indicated. The authors are also encouraged to include sex of cell lines. If cells or tissues from both sexes were used without regard to sex, this should be indicated.


Direct quotations, tables, or illustrations that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner and original author along with complete information as to source. Photographs of identifiable persons must be accompanied by signed releases showing informed consent. Articles appear in both the printed and online versions of the journal, and wording of the release should specify permission in all forms and media. Failure to get electronic permission rights may result in the images not appearing in the online version.


Original Communications
Manuscripts presenting original research, either clinical, translational, or basic science are original communications. Consideration for publication is based on novelty, appropriate methods and analyses, and convincing data that support actionable conclusions. Emphasis should be placed on the knowledge gap filled by the findings and how the findings are impactful. The text of the manuscript should be less than 3500 words excluding the abstract, tables, figures, and references. The abstract should be less than 250 words. A maximum of seven (7) figures and tables combined is allowed. Additional material should be submitted as supplementary material, which will be published online only. A maximum of 50 references is permitted. Digital media provides an outstanding opportunity to our authors to have us globally disseminate publications in surgery. A variety of platforms including Twitter?, LinkedIn?, FaceBook?, Instagram?, and YouTube? may be employed. To facilitate our Editors and publishers promoting Surgery publications, please provide the Twitter? handle for at least one author and for at least one department, university, medical center, or society.

Randomized Controlled Trials
Authors submitting randomized controlled trials must follow the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement, which can be found at: Authors should follow the 25-item checklist and submit a flow diagram with the manuscript. If accepted, the completed checklist must be included as supplementary material. Manuscripts not adhering to these guidelines will not be considered.

Observational Studies
Manuscripts that are observational should follow the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE Statement), which can be viewed at http://www.strobe-statement .org. The authors should follow the checklist for the study design, and, if the manuscript is accepted, must submit the checklist as supplementary material. Manuscripts not adhering to these guidelines will not be considered.

Best in Surgery
The Editors and Editors-In-Chief will select high impact manuscripts submitted as original communications as works of distinction, which will be published as feature papers in the Best in Surgery category. These manuscripts will be accompanied by commentaries invited by the Editors and Editors-In-Chief, visual abstracts constructed by the authors, and video interviews of the authors. These works, along with other Surgery manuscripts, will be highly visible on our social media platforms.

Clinical Reviews
Surgery publishes review papers that are solicited by the Editors-In-Chief or pre-approved by the Editors-In-Chief. Authors interested in writing a review manuscript should correspond with the Editors-In-Chief prior to submitting an unsolicited manuscript, which is rarely accepted. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which are well-executed and either relevant or timely, are considered through the regular submission process and without Editor-In-Chief pre-approval. These manuscripts must follow the outline suggested by PRISMA ( Only the most clinically impactful systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be reviewed and considered for publication. All review manuscripts are subject to rigorous peer review. The text of the manuscript should be less than 3500 words excluding the abstract, tables, figures, and references. The abstract should be less than 250 words.

Invited Commentaries
All invited commentaries are solicited by the Editors-In-Chief. Unsolicited commentaries may be considered, but pre-approval by the Editors is strongly recommended. The invited commentaries should be concise (not to exceed 1000 words) and should express the personal opinion of the author. An invited commentary should have a maximum of five (5) references and no tables or figures. Invited commentaries are related to manuscripts published in Surgery, but may include timely subjects of interest including topics of social significance.

These articles are accepted by invitation only. Special issue articles should have a maximum length of 1,000-1,500 words; include a maximum of 10 references; and they must include a narrative abstract of less than 350 words. The topics, selected by the Editors-in-Chief will be about new cutting edge subjects, often with a technical or technological focus. Each special series must be approved by the Editors.

Debates and Dilemmas
Surgery welcomes discussion of controversial topics or subject matter that warrants conversation. The Editors and Editors-In-Chief will solicit such topics, but we invited the readership to submit ideas by contacting our managing editor at [email protected] Topics must be pre-approved by the Editors-In-Chief as unsolicited submissions will not be considered. Debates and Dilemmas manuscripts should be 750 words or less and have a maximum of seven (7) references and no tables or figures.

Insights into Global Surgery
We are encouraging surgeons from developing countries to offer their perspectives and insight about surgical issues in their respective countries; this new article type will be managed by Dr. Anthony Charles. Insights into Global Surgery articles will not include an abstract; they must be 750 words or less; they may have a maximum of ten references; and they may contain one figure.

Residents and Fellows Forum
Submissions in the Residents and Fellows Forum should be concise (not to exceed 1000 words) features that focus on timely subjects of interest, including topics of social significance. These articles may contain the author's preliminary research. They cannot have an abstract; they should have a maximum of five (5) references; and they may contain only one table or figure. As part of the cover letter, the authors must document that they have a faculty sponsor who has approved the submission.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the editor must be in response to previously published articles in Surgery. Letters not pertaining to previously published Surgery articles will not be considered. Each letter must not exceed 500 words, should be typed with double-spacing, and may include five (5) references and no figures or tables. The Editors-In-Chief reserve the rights to accept, reject, or revise letters without changing the views expressed by the writer. No anonymous correspondence will be published. The letters must be written in publication quality language as only one (1) minor revision is permitted.

Societal Papers
Scientific work presented at annual meetings of the Academic Surgical Congress (ASC) under the auspices of the Society of University Surgeons (SUS), Central Surgical Association (CSA), and American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES) should follow the guidelines for Original Communications. The title page should also include the meeting name, location, and dates and type of presentation. Any additional material must be designated as Supplement Material outlined clearly as "For the online version of the article, not to be included in the print version."

Article Types No Longer Accepted
Surgery does not publish book reviews, brief clinical reports, case reports, or hypothesis papers. Authors may consider submitting case reports or brief clinical reports to our partner journal, The International Journal of Surgery Case Reports.
Surgery is no longer accepting Images in Surgery submissions. Authors may consider submitting their images to Surgery Open Science SOPEN

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses

Reporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies.

Article transfer service

This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor, a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information.


All manuscripts must be submitted online. Please go to and register, log in, and follow the instructions. When uploading your manuscript on the site, please be aware of the following:
  • MS Word is the preferred word-processing program. Please do not upload anything as a PDF file; the system will build a PDF for you.
  • All text elements (title page with structured abstract, main text, disclosure, funding statement, references, appendices, figure legends, and tables) should be in a single file.
  • Number pages consecutively and double-space text. Also, please use line numbering for ease of reviewing.
  • Each figure file should be created at the proper resolution (see guidelines below) and uploaded as a separate file (TIFF or EPS are the preferred formats).


The following format must be used for ALL submitted manuscripts:

1. Cover Letter (Mandatory)
The cover letter should provide (1) the category of manuscript (i.e., original report, brief clinical report, etc); (2) statement that the material has not been previously published or submitted elsewhere for publication and will not be sent to another journal until a decision is made concerning publication by Surgery; (3) COI (conflicts of interest) information about any personal conflicts of interest or financial conflicts of interest of any of the authors; and (4) names of sources of outside support for research, including funding, equipment, and drugs (see Financial Support). The cover letter should be submitted as a separate file. Any financial support whatsoever from industry must be acknowledged as a financial disclosure of all the authors in the cover letter as well as in the text of the manuscript, situated just before the References section. For instance, if a study is funded partially or totally by industry, this needs to be stated clearly followed by a statement disclosing whether or not each author and/or family member has any financial interest in the company (etc) funding the study. The Editors and the journal Surgery take this topic very seriously and it will be the Editors' discretion whether or not this represents too much of a conflict of interest to warrant publication. Finally, the cover letter should have a statement that attests to the fact that all authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript being submitted and that all authors fulfill the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) requirements for authorship (IF uncertain, search COPE guidelines on authorship at

2. Manuscript File (Mandatory)
A. Title Page
The title page should include the full name and highest achieved degree of each author, the institution from which the work originated, and the exact and complete business address, telephone numbers, e-mail address, and fax number of the one author who will be responsible for correspondence, galley proofs, and reprint requests. The corresponding author is encouraged to include a Twitter handle along with the Twitter handle(s) of the relevant department and/or institution and/or society.

B. Abstract
A structured abstract of no more than 250 words must accompany the manuscript and consist of four paragraphs, each with its introductory label: Background (stating the purpose of the study), Methods, Results, and Conclusions. This abstract should follow the title page and should be numbered page two of the manuscript. Abstracts are only necessary for Original Communications, Societal papers, and Reviews.

C. Main Text
For the main text, authors should refer to the brief description of types of submissions as well as the requirements on reporting of institutional ethics approval or exemption, informed consent, patient details, human trial registration and animal/human experiments. Authors should also include a statement regarding study limitations at the end of the Discussion.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should not contain language which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture, or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Data references
The journal Surgery encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

D. Conflict of Interest/Disclosure Statement
Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and Financial Interests. Surgery requires ALL authors to provide full disclosure of any and all biomedical financial interests. Further, we require all authors on all types of articles (including letters) to specify the nature of potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise. This disclosure includes direct or indirect financial or personal relationships, interests, and affiliations relevant to the subject matter of the manuscript that have occurred over the last two years, or that are expected in the foreseeable future. This disclosure includes, but is not limited to, grants or funding, employment, affiliations, patents (in preparation, filed, or granted), inventions, honoraria, consultancies, royalties, stock options/ownership, or expert testimony. Spousal or familial financial interests must also be included. This policy of full disclosure is similar to the policies of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the Journal of the American Medical Association, and other such organizations.
The conflict of interest statements must be included in all articles. Please label it as COI/Disclosures and include it at the end of the text of the manuscript, immediately before the References. It must be included at the time of submission for all article types. If the authors haves no conflicts of interest to declare, this must be explicitly stated, e.g., the authors have no related conflicts of interest to declare. Failure to include all relevant COIs will be taken very seriously and the author will be considered for Censorship from publishing in Surgery for the next three years or even permanently. Authors should contact the Editorial Office with questions or concerns, but should err on the side of inclusion when in doubt. The following is a sample text:
Dr. Einstein reports having received lecture fees from EMC Laboratories, and research funding from Quantum Enterprises. Dr. Curie disclosed consulting fees from RA Inc. Dr. Newton reported his patent on "Newtonian physics". Dr. Archimedes reported no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest
The submitting author will be required to attest that this information has been fully included in the manuscript at the time of submission. In addition, all authors are required to acknowledge that the conflict of interest disclosures are complete for both themselves and their co-authors, to the best of their knowledge, in the cover letter. Manuscripts that fail to include the complete statements of all authors upon submission will be returned to the corresponding author and will delay the processing and evaluation of the manuscript.

E. Funding/Financial Support Statement
All direct and indirect financial support by extramural sources for the study or related studies must be acknowledged. Please label this Funding/Financial support and include this at the end of the text immediately before the references. The distribution of funding must be addressed by describing how all the funding was distributed: salary, support of authors, study coordinator, medical student, resident, fellow, statistician, secretary, or other; laboratory analyses/equipment; devices, medications or materials; administration duties; or as a non-restricted educational grant.

F. References
Only references cited in the text should be included in the reference list; cite references in the text by superscript numbers. The reference list must be numbered according to the order of mention of references in the text. The list format should conform to that set forth in "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" (Vancouver style) ( Do not cite as a reference any work that has not been published or accepted for publication. Manuscripts in preparation or submitted (but not yet accepted for publication) are not acceptable as a reference nor are oral presentations. Manuscripts fully accepted for publication but not yet published should be cited as "in press." Note that journal abbreviations must follow the style used in the Cumulated Index Medicus. For periodical references, give the surnames of authors and their initials, title of article, publication name, year, volume, and inclusive page numbers. For books, give the surnames of authors and their initials, chapter title (if applicable), editors' surnames and initials, book title, volume number (if applicable), edition number (if applicable), city of publisher, full name of publisher, year of publication, and inclusive page numbers of citation.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

3. Two-Sentence Article Summary (Mandatory)
An article summary must be submitted as a separate file. This should be a two-sentence summary of the article. If your article is accepted, the summary will appear in the journal Surgery's Table of Contents. A good guideline would be: The first sentence should briefly summarize what you did or your findings (remember, one sentence). The second sentence should start out with "The importance of this (report or finding) is..." and then add your short justification to the end of this sentence.

4. Figures (Optional)
Figures should be submitted electronically. Figures must be submitted as separate files not embedded in the manuscript file. Please use either an EPS or TIFF file format. Graphics software such as Photoshop and Illustrator should be used to create art. Figures submitted using presentation software such as PowerPoint, CorelDraw, or Harvard Graphics are not acceptable. Color images need to be saved as CMYK, at least 300 dots per inch (dpi). Gray scale images should be at least 300 dpi. Line art (black and white or color) and combinations of gray scale and line art should be at least 300 dpi. Make sure that the figure number is marked clearly on the figure or part of the electronic file name (i.e., Figure1.tif). Please note that once you create digital art at low resolution, you cannot adjust it. You must create your art at the proper resolution (300 dpi) to begin with. For step-by-step instruction and screen shots on how to create your art correctly the first time, go to Elsevier's Author Gateway () and click on "Artwork Instructions."

Figures must be cited in the text and numbered in order of first mention. Do not embed the figures within the text of the manuscript, attach them as separate figure files. A reasonable number of black-and-white illustrations will be produced free of charge; however, please note that special arrangements must be made with the Editors and publisher for color plates or extra illustrations. The cost of color illustrations is usually borne by the authors. Please note that the figures in the online version of the journal Surgery will be reproduced in color, free of charge.

Legends must be provided for all illustrations and are best positioned at the end of the references section of the manuscript. The legend should not appear anywhere on the figure. If a figure has been previously published, the legend must give full credit to the original source. Permission from the copyright holder for reproduction in your article must be submitted with your manuscript.

5. Promotional Image and Promotional Video (Optional)
Authors are strongly encouraged to upload a "promotional image" and/or a "promotional video" with their submission. The "promotional image" can be a visual abstract or it can simply one of the figures from the author's manuscript submission. The "promotional image" will be used by the journal's social media team to increase exposure to the article if it is accepted for publication. We prefer the image in TIFF or JPEG format, and we cannot use images that require letters of permission to reprint. A template that can be used to create the image can be found here.

The "promotional video" will also be used to promote your paper. These should be short, self-recorded videos that contain the following information:
1. Title of your article
2. Authors
3. A brief summary of your paper: relevant findings, why are they important, can this study have an impact in clinical practice?

When creating your video, the following recommendations may be useful:
1. Use a well-lit and silent area to record your video.
2. No source of light should be placed behind you.
3. Keep the camera steady and at the height of your eyes.
4. Keep the video as short as possible (maximum 120 seconds)

6. Tables (Optional)
Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text, and given a brief, descriptive title. Omit all horizontal or vertical rules from the body of the table. Glossy prints and reduced versions of typewritten tables are unacceptable. All acronyms, abbreviations, and unusual units of measurement used in the title, headings, or body of the table should be fully explained in a footnote. For footnotes, use these symbols in sequence: *,?, ?, ?, ||, ?, #, **, ??, superscript lowercase letters. If a table or any data therein have been previously published, a footnote to the table must give full credit to the original source. Please position the tables after the references section of the manuscript; do not embed the tables within the text of the manuscript or position them before the references.

7. Video data (Optional)
We will accept relevant video clips with accepted manuscripts for viewing in the online version of Surgery. For more information on the specific file requirements, please go to Author's Gateway for Elsevier.

8. Supplementary data (Optional)
In exceptional or special circumstances, Surgery will allow publication of additional tables, figures, or text (e.g. methodology, explanations of analysis, etc) in the electronic version of the published manuscript. This material will not be included in the print version, but a reference to it being available online will be present in the print version. The Editors would like to emphasize that such additional material will have to meet strict criteria to be included in the electronic version; it will need to complement the data in the printed version. If deemed by the authors or Editors as crucial to the interpretation of the manuscript, this material should be included as part of the printed version of the manuscript. Please mark clearly in the submitted manuscript that this is supplemental information to be published electronically. The electronic version should not be used as a repository for redundant or unnecessary data.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases. Authors can also request permission to reuse content online through
For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Open Access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
The journal Surgery offers authors two choices to publish their research;
1. Open Access
  • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
  • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
2. Subscription
  • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs
  • No open access publication fee

All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY): available only for authors funded by organizations with which we have established an agreement with. For a full list please see
Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC-BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees
To provide open access, the journal Surgery has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access. Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing

Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Preprint references

Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data

This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.